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内蒙古自治区妇幼保健院祛除腋臭多少钱

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内蒙古一机医院玻尿酸多少钱If you think that cancer is only found in humans, or that its a modern disease, think again. Scientists have not only found cancer in many other animals, they have found it in dinosaurs that lived more than 65 million years ago. Wondering if fossils could tell us something about ancient cancer, scientists traveling with a portable x-ray machine scanned ten-thousand dinosaur vertebrae of over 700 museum specimens.如果你认为癌症只会出现在人类身上,或者它只是一种现代疾病,那么你需要从新审视一下这个问题了。科学家不仅发现其它很多动物患有癌症,而且还发现生活在距今6500万年前的恐龙也有癌症。考虑到能够通过化石来了解古代癌症,科学家用便携式X光仪对700个物馆标本近1万件恐龙脊椎骨进行了扫描。These included many popular dinosaurs such as Stegosaurus, Triceratops and Tyrannosaurus. Much to their surprise, they found that only one group suffered from cancer-the hadrosaurs, or “duck-billed” dinosaurs. 29 benign tumors were found in the tail bones of 97 animals. These were mostly hemangiomas or tumors of the blood vessels.经过扫描的恐龙化石包括许多我们比较熟悉的恐龙,比如剑龙,三角恐龙和暴龙。另科学家十分惊奇的是,仅有一组恐龙是癌症的受害者——它就是鸭嘴龙。研究人员在97个恐龙的尾骨里发现了29个良性肿瘤块。它们大多是血管瘤或是脉管瘤。Doctors find the same type of tumors in humans today. One Edmontosaurus also had a malignant tumor. Why did duck-Billed dinosaurs have cancer and not the others? Scientists arent sure. They thought that if hadrosaurs were long-lived, they would have a greater chance of developing cancer, but they lived relatively short lives. These twenty-five foot long herbivores needed plenty to eat, so diet was another thing scientists considered.医生们在今天的人类身上也发现了这类肿瘤。在一个爱德蒙托龙身上还发现了恶性肿瘤。为什么鸭嘴龙会患上癌症,而不是其它的恐龙呢?这一点科学家也不得而知。科学家认为,如果鸭嘴龙存活的时间很长,那么它们患癌症的几率会很大,但它们存活的时间相对较短。这些25英尺长的草食动物需要吃很多东西,因此科学家把它们的饮食作为另一个考虑因素。Maybe conifers were to blame. Hadrosaurs ate plenty of them and they did contain known carcinogens. The trouble is, other conifer eaters didnt exhibit the same cancer. The cause of hadrosaur cancer remains a mystery today, but dinosaur fossils are helping unlock secrets of diseases millions of years old. Who knows what else theyll reveal.也许罪魁祸首是针叶树。鸭嘴龙要吃很多针叶树叶,这些针叶树确实含有已知的致癌物。但问题是,其它吃针叶树的恐龙并没有患同样的癌症。鸭嘴龙的癌症病因至今还是个谜,但恐龙化石帮助我们揭开了隐藏了百万年之久的秘密. 谁知道它们还会揭示什么呢?原文译文属!201306/245373呼和浩特美容祛斑哪家医院好 Science and technology科学技术Scientific publishing科学出版The price of information信息的价格Academics are starting to boycott a big publisher of journals学术界开始联合抵制某个大型期刊出版商SOMETIMES it takes but a single pebble to start an avalanche.有时一块小卵石就足以使冰山崩裂。On January 21st Timothy Gowers, a mathematician at Cambridge University,一月二十一日,剑桥大学数学家Timothy Gowers写了一篇文,wrote a blog post outlining the reasons for his longstanding boycott of research journals published by Elsevier.其中陈列了其长期抵制埃尔塞维尔科学出版社的研究期刊的原因。This firm, which is based in the Netherlands, owns more than 2,000 journals, including such top-ranking titles as Cell and the Lancet.这个总部位于荷兰的公司主营的期刊就有2000多,包括《细胞》和《柳叶刀》等世界一流的刊物。However Dr Gowers, who won the Fields medal, mathematicss equivalent of a Nobel prize, in 1998, is not happy with it, and he hoped his post might embolden others to do something similar.然而菲尔兹奖得主Gowers士对它不满,并希望其文可以鼓励他人联合抵制。It did.他目的达到了。More than 2,700 researchers from around the world have so far signed an online pledge set up by Tyler Neylon,Gowers士的同事Tyler Neylon受到该文的鼓舞,在网上发起请愿,a fellow-mathematician who was inspired by Dr Gowerss post, promising not to submit their work to Elseviers journals,目前已有来自世界各地的2700多名研究者签名,他们承诺不会投稿到Elsevier的期刊,or to referee or edit papers appearing in them.也不会推荐或编辑上面刊登的文章。That number seems, to borrow a mathematical term, to be growing exponentially.签署的人数—借用数学术语来说—似乎呈指数增长。If it really takes off, established academic publishers might find they have a revolution on their hands.如果这真的形成一股风气,那已成立的学术出版社可能面临一场大变革。A bundle of trouble麻烦不断Dr Gowerss immediate gripes are threefold.Gowers士的不满可以分为三点。First, that Elsevier charges too much for its products.首先,Elsevier的产品要价太高。Second, that its practice ofbundling journals forces libraries which wish to subscribe to a particular publication to buy it as part of a set that includes several others they may not want.其次,它将几种刊物捆绑出售,这就让想要订阅其中某种刊物的图书馆不得不将囊括了他们不想要的刊物的系列刊物全买下。And third, that it supports legislation such as the Research Works Act, a bill now before Americas Congress that would forbid the government requiring that free access be given to taxpayer-funded research.第三,它持研究工作法等立法,该法案无须通过美国国会,就可以阻止政府为纳税人资助的研究小组提供免费通道。Elsevier insists it is being misrepresented.Elsevier坚称自己是被误解了。The firm is certainly in rude financial health.无疑该公司的财务状况很强健。In 2010 it made a 724m profit on revenues of 2 billion, a margin of 36%.2010年其收入有20亿欧元,热利润只有7.24亿欧元,利润幅度达36%。But it charges average industry prices for its products, according to Nick Fowler, its director of global academic relations,然而其全球学术关系部门领导Nick Fowler认为其开价属于行业平均价格,and its price rises have been lower than those imposed by other publishers over the past few years.而且过去几年来,其价格涨幅要比其它出版商要低。Elseviers enviable margins, Dr Fowler says, are simply a consequence of the firms efficient operation.Fowler士称,Elsevier那让人眼红的盈利幅度,只是该公司高效运转的结果。Dr Neylons petition, though, is symptomatic of a wider conflict between academics and their publishers—a conflict that is being thrown into sharp relief by the rise of online publishing.然而,Neylon士的请愿不过是学术及其出版商之间矛盾扩大化的一种象征——由于网络出版业的崛起,这种矛盾已经得到大大的缓解了。Academics, who live in a culture which values the free and easy movement of information have long been uncomfortable bedfellows with commercial publishing companies,学术,能生长于一个重视信息传播的自由性与方便性的文化环境中,同时也是一个愿意无偿编辑和评判文章的事物。which want to maximise profits by charging for access to that information, and who control many of the most prestigious scientific journals.但长期以来,学术与商业化出版商就格格不入,后者希望通过向信息获取者收费从而使利润最大化,此外还掌控着大多数最负盛名的科学刊物。This situation has been simmering for years.这种局面已经酝酿多年了。In 2006, for example, the entire editorial board of Topology, a mathematics journal published by Elsevier, resigned,比如,2006年Elsevier出版一本数学期刊《地志学》时,整个编辑委员会都提出辞呈,citing similar worries about high prices choking off access.并对高价掐断信息来源的行为表示类似忧虑。And the board of K-theory, a maths journal owned by Springer, a German publishing firm, quit in 2007.而德国某出版公司Springer旗下的一本数学期刊《扭结理论》的编辑委员会也于2007年辞职。To many, it is surprising things have taken so long to boil over.酿就一件事花费如此长的时间让很多人大跌眼镜。Academics were the internets earliest adopters, with all the possibilities for cutting publishers out of the loop which that offers. And there have indeed been attempts to create alternatives to commercial publishing.学术界是最早采纳互联网的。却是有人试图为商业出版提供更多选择。Cornell Universitys arXiv website was set up in 1991.康奈尔大学的arXiv网站于1991年成立。Researchers can upload maths and physics papers that have not been published in journals.研究员可以上传一些还没在期刊上发表的数学及物理文章。Thousands are added every day.每天添加的文章成千上万。The Public Library of Science was founded in 2000.公共科学图书馆于2000年成立,It publishes seven free journals which cover biology and medicine.它会免费出版7种涵盖生物学和医学的刊文。But despite the enthusiasm for such operations, there are reasons for the continued dominance of traditional publishers.然而,尽管人们有热情去做类似事情,但传统出版商主导地位依旧屹立不倒也有其理由。ArXivs papers, though subject to merciless post-publication commentary, are not formally peer-reviewed before they are posted.ArXiv的文章,尽管遭受到出版后的无情抨击,但他们在发表之前并没有接受同行审评。Their quality is thus rather uneven.因此其质量相当不平衡。PLoS relies partly on donations, but also charges publication fees of up to ,900 per paper.PloS的部分经济来源于捐赠,但每篇文章也收取高达2900美元的发表费。These must be paid by the authors, a significant expense for cash-strapped university departments.这些费用必须由作者承担,对于囊中羞涩的大学部门来说这是笔很大的费用。And there is also a lingering prejudice against electronic-only publishing.此外,关于只有电子版的刊物的偏见一直存在。Web-based alternatives often seem less respectable than their dead-tree counterparts.通常,相比网络版刊物,人们更尊重那些过时了的纸质版刊物。That matters, because university departments are rated both by the number of papers they publish and the reputation of the journals those papers appear in.这至关重要,因为大学部门是以他们所发表的文章数量及其所在刊物的名气程度来评级的。Youngsters, who might be expected to embrace new ways of doing things, must therefore publish in existing, reputable journals if they want recognition and promotion.因此,可能接受新方式的青年如果想要得到承认与升迁,就必须在有名气的实体刊物上发表文章。And the definition ofreputable changes slowly, since journals with the best reputation get the pick of new papers.由于新报刊能够成为最有名气的报刊,名气的定义也在逐渐改变。Commercial publishers have begun to experiment with open-access ideas, such as charging authors for publication rather than ers for ing.商业化出版商已经开始尝试开放式获取理念,比如收费对象从读者转向发表文章的作者。But if the boycott continues to grow, things could become more urgent.然而,如果抵制情绪持续增长,问题将变得更为紧迫。After all, publishers need academics more than academics need publishers.毕竟,需要学院的出版商多过需要出版商的学院。And incumbents often look invulnerable until they suddenly fall.而且往往出版商在倒下的前一刻还看起来坚不可摧。Beware, then, the Academic spring.那么,当心学术的春天到了。 点击此处下载本期经济学人讲解PDF与音频字幕 /201306/245146内蒙古医学院附属医院激光祛斑多少钱

呼和浩特祛痣哪里好 Science and technology科学技术The uses of stem cells干细胞的应用Potent medicine特效医学Stem cells may transform the development of new drugs干细胞可能改写新药发展PLURIPOTENT is a long word that means able to do many things.多能的意思是能做很多事。It is the technical term applied to stem cells that can generate many different sorts of bodily tissue, rather than just one sort, which is all that lesser stem cells can manage.这一技术术语适用于可分化成多种不同身体组织的干细胞,而不是像次级分化干细胞一样只可以分化成一种身体组织。But many researchers hope these cells will be pluripotent in other ways, too.但是研究者希望干细胞在其他方面也具备多能性。Not only might they be used to make replacement tissues and organs for transplantation into those whose existing body parts no longer work properly, they might also be used to produce pure cultures of cells for the early testing of drugs.干细胞不仅可用于获得某些身体部分运作不良者移植用的替换组织或器官,还可以用于培养药物早期试验用的纯系细胞。The culturing and use of human pluripotent stem cells is controversial because the natural source of such cells is embryos, which are destroyed by the process of extraction.人类多功能干细胞的培养和使用备受争议,因为这类细胞的自然来源胚胎,在提取过程中会被破坏。But in 2007 two groups of researchers, one in Japan and the other in America, announced that they had worked out how to make adult skin cells behave like natural pluripotent cells, by adding four activated genes to them.但是2007年,日本和美国各有研究者表示,通过增加4个激活基因,成人皮肤细胞可有与自然多功能细胞相同的表现。The result is known as an induced pluripotent stem cell.这一成果被称为诱导多功能干细胞。On January 3rd AstraZeneca, a British drug company, said it would buy human heart muscle, blood vessels, nerve cells and liver cells made from iPS cells by Cellular Dynamics, a company founded by James Thomson.1月3日,英国阿斯利康制药表示将向杰姆·汤姆生创立的细胞动力公司购买用诱导能干细胞生产的心肌、血管、神经细胞和肝细胞。Dr Thomson, a biologist at the University of Wisconsin, is the man who led the team that, in 1998, isolated the first human embryonic stem cells and in 2007 published the American version of the iPS work.汤姆生士是威斯康星大学的生物学家。他带领的团队在1998年首次分离了人类胚胎干细胞,并在2007年发表美方的诱导能干工作成果。AstraZeneca has two plans for its purchases.阿斯利康这次的计划有两个:One is to use them to find molecules that encourage non-pluripotent stem cells to turn into mature tissue.一是利用诱导能干细胞寻找能刺激非能干细胞转化成成熟组织的分子。Such molecules could act as drugs that coax damaged tissue to heal itself.这类分子可作为诱导损伤组织自我修复的药物;The second is to use iPS cells to test drugs that have nothing to do with regenerative medicine.二是利用诱导能干细胞测试与再生医学无关的药物。Too often, a promising-looking drug fails late on in a clinical trial.一个前景光明的药物常常在之后的临床试验中失败。Sometimes this is because it does not deliver the promised benefit.有时是由于该药未起到预期作用;Sometimes, however, it works but its side effects prove more dangerous than the disease it is supposed to treat.而有时药物起作用了,但副作用比其治疗的疾病更危险。The cost of failed trials is an important reason why drug research is so expensive.试验花费是药物研究成本高昂的一个重要原因。AstraZeneca therefore plans to use Cellular Dynamicss cells to check the toxicity of potential medicines before they get inside a human being, in order to reduce the number of trials that fail for the second reason.所以阿斯利康计划在人体试验前,利用细胞动力公司的细胞来测试新药的毒性,以便减少由第二个原因导致的试验失败。And AstraZeneca is not the only company using iPS cells in new ways.阿斯利康并不是唯一一家在新领域应用诱导能干细胞的公司。In December GlaxoSmithKline,another British firm, described an experiment in which it assaulted neurons derived from iPS cells with beta-amyloid, a molecule linked to Alzheimers disease, and then tested whether the beta-amyloid responded to hundreds of existing drugs.另一家英国公司葛兰素史克11月公布了一项实验:该实验利用带β-淀粉的诱导能干细胞分化的神经细胞来测试β-淀粉对成千上百种现有药物的反应。The findings of this experiment will be published in Stem Cell Research in March.实验结果将发表在3月份的《干细胞研究》上。Another trick made possible by iPS cells is to derive them from patients with specific ailments—particularly ailments with a genetic component—and then nudge the induced cells into becoming the type of cell afflicted by that ailment.诱导能干细胞还可实现另一种可能,即从患有特定疾病—尤其是与基因有关的疾病—的患者身上获得诱导能干细胞,然后使其转变成受该疾病影响的特定细胞。Several groups of researchers have used disease-prone cells created in this way to explore how the disease in question develops, and whether it succumbs to drugs.有几个研究小组已利用这种疾病倾向细胞来探索疾病的发展及药物的有效性。George Daley, of Harvard University, is one of the most enthusiastic explorers of these disease in a dish models.哈弗大学的乔治?戴利是最热衷于这些皿中疾病的研究者之一。In 2008 he created stem-cell lines from people with ten different conditions, including Downs syndrome, juvenile diabetes and Parkinsons disease.2008年他从十种不同疾病—包括唐氏综合征、青少年型糖尿病及帕金森病—的患者身上获得干细胞株。Such models are hardly foolproof—Dr Daley himself acknowledges that the technology is still in its infancy—but eventually they may bring new drugs.这些模型难免存在差错—戴利士也承这一技术还处于起步阶段,但最终它们可能带来新药。iPierian, a company that Dr Daley helped found, has used iPS cells to develop two antibodies that might be used to attack tau, a protein implicated in Alzheimers disease, and also to clear up inflammation linked with Alzheimers and other neurodegenerative conditions.戴利参与创立的iPierian公司利用诱导能干细胞研制了两种抗体。这两种抗体或可用于攻击与阿尔兹海默病有关tau蛋白,同事可能用于消除与阿尔兹海默病和其他神经退化性疾病有关的炎症。That is a use far removed from the original idea of employing stem cells in regenerative medicine.这与将干细胞应用于再生医学的原始想法相去甚远。The plurality of their potency, then, is only just beginning to be explored.干细胞多能性应用多样化的探索才刚刚起步。 /201310/261767呼和浩特修复逗坑要多少钱呼和浩特市第一医院激光祛痣多少钱

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